The major challenges in the provision of safe water and sanitation on a global basis are [ 37 ]: 1 water contamination within distribution systems; 2 increasing water scarcity and shortages; 3 implementing innovative and low-cost sanitation systems; 4 providing sustainable water supply systems and sanitation for megacities; 5 reducing the disparities in access to water and sanitation and 6 developing financially feasible water and sanitation services.
Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high-quality water demands and commercial and institutional pressures. Public water service providers should plan to achieve a high level of reliable, stable and dependable water supply, which can be achieved by combining alternative water supply systems with the conventional ones. The study concluded that despite the challenges, urban water self-sufficiency concepts in combination with conventional water resources are already helping to reach the goal of urban WSS.
Infrastructure development: Water services are in crisis or approaching crisis conditions due to the neglect of infrastructure, particularly underground water mains and sewers, largely because of political unwillingness to allow charges to be set high enough to achieve sustainable cost recovery. This is true in both developed and developing countries [ 43 ]. In developed countries, the solutions are relatively affordable; what is needed is the political commitment to take action.
In developing countries, the situation is more serious due to a combination of neglect and rapidly growing urban populations. Without doubt, infrastructure is essential for sustainable water development. But infrastructure alone will not contribute to the improvement of the quality of life unless it is part of an overall framework: development, economic growth, social equity and environmental protection. But infrastructure development takes more time beyond the life of most governments. The thinking of water service providers has to be based on long-term horizons.
In order to improve the accountability and social welfare of relatively low-income households, there is a need for more comprehensive frameworks institutional, legal, regulatory, policy and management than the existing ones at present [ 45 ]. This would help the government agencies to come out with an improved water tariff policy that will cover cost of investment and maintenance. Urban water pricing cost recovery, affordability and water conservation : Policymakers increasingly consider pricing as an important tool for cost recovery, affordability and water conservation to address water scarcity issues.
However, implementing tariff reforms is often difficult in practice due to political factors and the absence of governance structures that can result in quality service provision. Additionally, institutional replication of successful water pricing policies has been difficult due to incomplete information and the contextual uniqueness of local institutions, politics and social relations.
Water service provision thinking has to be based on long-term horizons. Infrastructure development takes time beyond the life of most governments. In those countries without such political continuity, there is a need for all political factions to agree on goals, policies and plans. It is unlikely that water can ever be separated from politics, but city political consensus must be attempted [ 53 ]. Climate change : Climate change is affecting the frequency of extreme weather events and hence increasing the uncertainty about water availability and reliability [ 50 ].
A properly planned, developed and managed infrastructure and related institutional capacities are required in order to buffer seasonal climatic variations and address water demand issues. More emphasis should be given to mountain-specific issues. Major priority areas include water governance for transboundary basins, cross-border information systems, establishing a knowledge base for mountain regions and sharing benefit between mountain and downstream communities [ 42 ].
Knowledge gaps: With respect to present and future, hydrology poses a serious constraint for infrastructure development. Changing hydrology will pose special challenges to the design, planning and management of infrastructure [ 42 ]. Land use influences raw surface water quality and treatment costs for drinking water supply [ 51 ]. Anthropogenic disturbances to the environment can compromise valuable ecosystem services, including the provision of potable water. These disturbances decrease water quality, potentially increasing treatment costs for producing drinking water.
Efficiency and reliability of a water supply system: Water inflow is among primary determinants of the successful functioning of the entire water supply system since it influences water storage. Developing an approach to assess the resilience of WSS under limited rainfall provides useful insights into effective system management [ 26 ]. It can also help to understand and identify the sensitivity of the WSS to a changing rainfall amount and distribution pattern. Challenges for water supply and Governance: Cities struggling to keep pace with population and demographic changes are not unique.
Their main challenges related to topography, old infrastructure the nineteenth century , population growth and development needs, water charges, climate change and water supply history. Water is most fundamental in shaping the land and regulating the climate. It is one of the most important resources that profoundly influence life. Water quality is the most fundamental controlling factor when it comes to health and the state of diseases in both humans and animals.
Water quality policy - WaterNSW
As a principle, drinking water is supposed to be free from harmful pathogens and toxic chemicals [ 3 ]. Contamination of freshwater especially groundwater sources is one of the main challenges currently faced by the South Africans, more especially in communities who depend almost exclusively on groundwater [ 52 ]. Groundwater is used for domestic, industrial and agricultural water supply in all four corners of the world. Therefore, the presence of contaminants in natural freshwater continues to be one of the most important environmental issues in many areas of the world, more especially in developing countries [ 53 ].
Once the groundwater is contaminated, its quality cannot be restored back easily, the best way is to protect it. The concept and theory of water quality is very broad since it is influenced by many factors. Water quality is based on the intended uses of water for different purposes, that is, different water uses require different criteria to be satisfied. In water quality analysis, all of the accepted and unaccepted values must be clearly defined for each quality variable. If the quality variables meet the pre-established standards for a given use is considered safe for that use.
When water fails to meet these standards, it must be treated if possible before use. Physical quality parameters are related to total solids content, which is composed of floating matter, settleable matter, colloidal matter and matter in solution. The following physical parameters are determined in water [ 12 ]:. Color : caused by dissolved organic materials from decaying vegetation or landfill leachate. Taste and odor : can be caused by foreign compounds such as organic compounds, inorganic salts or dissolved gases. Temperatures : the most desirable drinking water is consistently cool and does not have temperature fluctuation of more than a few degrees.
Groundwater generally meets these criteria. Turbidity : refers to the presence of suspended solid materials in water such as clay, silt, organic material, plankton, and so on. The chemical constituents have more health concerns for drinking water than for the physical constituents. The objectionability of most of the physical parameters are based on esthetic value than health effects. But the main objectionability of some of the chemical constituents is based on esthetic as well as concerns for adverse health effects.
Some of the chemical constituents have an ability to cause health problems after prolonged period of time [ 54 ]. That means the chemical constituents have a cumulative effect on humans. The chemical quality parameters of water include alkalinity, biological oxygen demand BOD , chemical oxygen demand COD , dissolved gases, nitrogen compounds, pH, phosphorus and solids organic.
Sometimes, chemical characteristics are evidenced by their observed reactions such as in laundering, redox reactions, and so on [ 12 , 54 ]. Arsenic : occurs naturally in some geologic formation. It is mostly used in agricultural chemicals in South Africa. In drinking water, it has been linked to lung and urinary bladder cancer.
Chloride : most waters contain some chloride. The amount found can be caused by the leaching of industrial or domestic waters. Fluoride : is a natural contaminant of water. It is one of those chemicals given high priority by WHO [ 14 ] for their health effects on humans. High F in drinking water usually causes dental and skeletal fluorosis. Zinc : is found in some natural waters, particularly in areas where zinc ore deposit have been mined. Though it is not considered detrimental to health, but it will impart a bad taste to drinking water.
Iron : small amounts of iron frequently are present in water because of the large amount of iron in the geologic materials.
Principles of Surface Water Quality Modeling and Control
This will cause reddish color to water. Manganese : naturally occurring manganese is often present in significant amounts in groundwater. Anthropogenic sources include discarded batteries, steel alloy production and agricultural products. Toxic substances : generally classified as inorganic substances, organic substances and heavy metals. These substances are of major health concern in drinking water. There are more than toxic organic substances [ 24 ], generally exist in the form of pesticides, insecticides and solvents.
These compounds produce health effects acute or chronic.
Like the organic substances, some of these substances are acute poisons As and Cr and others produce chronic diseases Pb, Cd and Hg. Biological parameters are the basic quality parameters for the control of diseases caused by pathogenic organisms, which have human origin.
Pathogenic organisms found in surface water include bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, plants and animals and viruses. Some of these disease-causing organisms bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses are not identifiable and can only be observed microscopically. Microbiological agents are very important in their relation to public health and may also be significant in the modification of physical and chemical characteristics of water [ 12 ].
Water for drinking and cooking purposes must be free from pathogens.
The greatest microbial risks are associated with consumption of water that is contaminated with human or animal feces. Feces can carry pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, helminthes and virus.
Principles of Water Quality Control
Pathogens originating from feces are the principle concerns in setting health-based targets for microbial safety. Water-borne diseases are particularly to be avoided because of the capacity of result in the simultaneous infection of large number of people. While water can be a very significant source of infectious organisms, many of the diseases that may be waterborne may also be transmitted by other routes, including person-to-person contact, droplets and aerosols and food intake [ 54 ].
The techniques for comprehensive bacteriological test are complex and time consuming. Different tests have been developed to detect the relative degree of bacterial contaminations in terms of an easily defined quantity. There are two mostly used test methods widely used to estimate the number of microorganism of coliform groups Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes. These include: total coliforms or E. As presented in Section 3.
A standard for drinking water quality is thus the reference that will ensure that the delivered water will not pose any threat or harm to human health. The water quality standard is the framework against which a water sample can be considered satisfactory or safe for use [ 54 ]. There are a number of standard guidelines for drinking purposes such as World Health Organization [ 54 ], Commission for European Union [ 55 ], U.
Most developing and other developed countries use the WHO standards for drinking water [ 54 ]. Note that the values indicated for the different standards other than WHO are the maximum permissible limits. The interpretation of the various water quality parameters separately is usually a difficult task for general public as well as decision and policy makers. Therefore, the calculation of a general water quality index WQI is extremely important in order to communicate the quality of water in a better and understandable ways.
There are different approaches of calculating WQI. In this section, a brief description has been provided for the weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index Method proposed by Tiwari and Mishra [ 62 ] and adopted by others [ 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 ]. The quality rating q i , the sub-index SI [ 65 ] and the relative weights Wi are calculated using Eqs. W i is the relative weights for various water quality parameters, assumed to be inversely proportional to the recommended standards for the corresponding parameters.
The w i values are provided by Tiwari and Mishra [ 62 ], which depend on the number of parameters considered in the calculation of WQI. Finally, the overall WQI Eq. As water is a basic need for human life, access to clean, safe drinking water is a basic human right. As a criterion, an adequate, reliable, clean, acceptable and safe drinking water supply has to be available for various users. Moreover, everyone needs access to safe water in adequate quantities for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene and sanitation facilities that do not compromise health or dignity.
Access to water is one of the most important catalysts given high priority by the UN for sustainable development. There are a number of factors challenging the sustainable WSS. Some of the factors are related to infrastructures aging , clean water issues quality, scarcity , natural factors climate change, flood and drought , human factors population growth, migration, demographic change, economic development, willingness to pay for water supply services, overuse , water management and delivery problems pressure, leakages, lack of smart water meters, cost recovery, operation costs, etc.
MDG fails to achieve its goal for access to safe water and sanitation. Some of the African leaders are reporting a false number of people with access to safe drinking water and sanitation to get a donation from the UN and using the donated money to buy weapons and use it to suppress the right of the people. In developing countries, improving access to safe water requires provision of good quality education and the establishment of good governance.
Priorities should be given to the development of a democratic government and community empowerment. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications.
By Shailendra K. Edited by Ayse Irmak. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Water is connected to every forms of life on earth. Keywords accessibility inequalities quality standards safe water water uses.
Drinking water safety and access 2. Access to safe drinking water Water is connected to every form of life on earth and is the basic human need, equally important as air. Benefits of safe drinking water Water of satisfactory quality is the fundamental indicator of health and well-being of a society and hence, crucial for the development of a country. Basic principles of safe drinking water supply 3. Definition of terms There are basic standards, norms, criterion and indicators for safe drinking water.
Water regulations and act Water regulations are important for the provision of drinking water that is sufficient in quantity, safe, accessible, acceptable, affordable and reliable. Potential factors challenging water supply systems The water supply system WSS is a system of hydrologic and hydraulic components, including all buildings and installations, used to meet water requirement of industrial and population centers. Challenging factors for water supply systems There are a number of factors challenging WSS.
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Drinking water quality 5. Definition and concepts Water is most fundamental in shaping the land and regulating the climate. Description of water quality parameters 5. Physical parameters Physical quality parameters are related to total solids content, which is composed of floating matter, settleable matter, colloidal matter and matter in solution. The following physical parameters are determined in water [ 12 ]: Color : caused by dissolved organic materials from decaying vegetation or landfill leachate.
Chemical parameters The chemical constituents have more health concerns for drinking water than for the physical constituents. Below is a list of some of the chemical compounds and elements found in water: Arsenic : occurs naturally in some geologic formation. Biological parameters Biological parameters are the basic quality parameters for the control of diseases caused by pathogenic organisms, which have human origin.
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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Preface 1. Introduction to Water Quality Concepts I. Natural Environmental Processes I. Introduction II. Ecological Succession IV. The Dynamics of Organic Carbon V. Conclusion References 3. Toxic Metals and Water Quality I. Conclusion References 4. Health Effects III. Pesticides and Water Quality IV. Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Water Quality V.
Detergents VI. Polychlorinated Biphenols VII. Humic Substances References 5. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication I. The Nitrogen Cycle IV. The Phosphorus Cycle V.
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The Sulfur Cycle VI. Micronutrients and Productivity VII. Plant Growth and Eutrophication References 6. Microorganisms and Water Quality I. Eucaryotes III.