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Description Content Reviews Author information Who exactly are the 'intellectuals'? Party of the Intellectuals? Christophe Charle's "Naissance des Intellectuels" has long been recognised as the most probing and rigorous analysis of the conditions which gave rise, in the course of the Dreyfus Affair, to the distinctively French conception of "l'intellectuel".
Birth Of The Intellectuals 1880 1900 2015
Its exceptional combination of analytical command and sociological data provides a model for comparable studies, and so this English translation is to be warmly welcomed. Nowhere was this more evident than in its numerous dance halls, whose popularity reached a zenith with the opening of the Moulin Rouge in The dance floor featured local stars performing the latest crazes, such as the particularly erotic version of the popular cancan called le chahut. His first commercial poster, Moulin Rouge: La Goulue ; The s and s also witnessed the rise in popularity of the circus, which was considered to be a form of artistic expression.
What had begun as a critique of decadent society had become a symbol of decadence itself. Myers, Nicole. Homberg, Cornelia, et al. Exhibition catalogue..
Ives, Colta. Despite of the specificities of the different parts of Europe, the different types of intellectuals emerging all along the last century, illustrate some sort of convergence at a transnational level. The most significative of the European cultural way is that each national debate has some European echo from Russia to France or even Britain.
Twentieth Century changes of meanings The intertwining of the sociological and the political of ethical viewpoints was perpetually reiterated during the history of French intellectuals after the Dreyfus affair. A new sociologization of the word occurred with the attacks against previous dreyfusards in the pre-world-war period. For their critics this political party constitued in fact a social cluster of arrivists, a new elite of mandarins backing upon leftist politicians Prochasson Between the two World Wars, there was a revival of the political and ideological emphasis on the meaning of the word during what has been called the Franco-french war between the right-wing "parti de l'intelligence" and the left-wing "intellectuels de gauche".
This trend is enhanced because at the same time extreme left movements tried to restrict the notion to a sociological sense. The influence of Soviet marxism may be found here in which "intellectuels" become a synonym for the Russian word "intelligentsia" which is nearer a sociological concept after the October revolution than the term "intellectuels" is in French.
This intertwining of two traditions after the thirties explain why leftist intellectuals used social concepts to attack their rightist opponents while, reversely, rightist intellectuals laid the stress on the idealist conception of the intellectual role : they opposed themselves to materialism i.
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After the First world war the democratization in both Britain and Weimar Germany places intellectuals in a political context wear similar to the French one. The growing influence of left parties, of marxist ideas, of international issues communism, fascism, pacifism, fear for a new war gave birth to transnational debates among European intellectuals or even American if the case of New York intellectuals may be included.
This does not mean that the specific national traditions are forgotten. Even if notions like Intellektuelle or intelligentsia are more used than before in the German or English public debate, they never obtained the general influence which they enjoyed in France, Italy or Spain Stark , Bering Even innovative sociologists such as Karl Mannheim continued to use in general the older vocabulary to express their new conceptions of a free-floating intelligentsia freischwebende Intelligenz, Geistige : Mannheim The anti-intellectualism of the Nazi movement and Regime and the large emigration of progressist or Jewish intellectuals out of Germany and Central Europe stopped for a long period this timid convergence with the Latin tradition of intellectuals.
Another effect of the political transformations of the interwar period is the changing meaning of the Russian equivalent of intellectuals i. In the Soviet vocabulary intelligentsai was denied any political autonomy and reduced to a professional group in charge of functional activities defined by the political authorities.
Birth of the Intellectuals
In Southern Europe, in Africa, Asia or Latin America where revolutionary intellectuals or militants for the Human Rights rejuvenated the XIXth-century European tradition of oppositional intellectuals wether in its marxist, leninist or social-democratic version or in its dreyfusard and humanist variant. The importance of young intellectuals students for example in a lot of emerging countries during the decolonization phase reminds also of the similar national movement in Germany, Italy or Center-east Europe before All these convergences explain why the historical notion of intellectuals continues to be at the centre of many historical, sociological or philosophical works or reflexions trying to find general or transhistorical definitions of this term.
To precise all these debates would ask a broad picture of the main currents of social and historical sciences in so far as each specific definition of intellectuals by actual theoreticians or historians is linked to their general conceptions of history and society. University of Toronto Quarterly, Barbagli M Disoccupazione intellettuale e sistemo scolastico in Italia.
Grasset, Paris, [ The great betrayal. Knopf and Johns Hopkins U. Geschichte eines Schimpfwortes. Cohen, Bonn [ Ideology and utopia, an introduction to the sociology of knowledge, K. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte eines politischen Schlagwortes. Harvard U. The Rise and Decline of the Antistalinist Left from the s to the s.
A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Oxford U.
The Dreyfus Affair and the Birth of the ‘Intellectuals’ | SpringerLink
Related Papers. By Christophe Charle. By Denis Sdvizkov.